Japanese and seal
Seal began to His Majesty the Emperor, ministers, governors, municipal mayors, school principals, legislators, other government agencies,
Company, is the only cultural school, organization, shrines, temples, and in the * world of the Japanese people all possessed
Sealing is the act of showing one's rights, obligations, and possession protected by law and guaranteeing each other's will .
Signing is different from "deciding things delicately and in good faith"
It is also said to be a diligent and serious Japanese way of life and identity .
In Japan, a seal registration certification system, which is different from the notary public system as in Europe and the United States, has been established as a social structure. Signing a contract Unlike in the West, the act of imprinting is also a unique culture unique to Japanese people who make delicate and sincere decisions . "Seal" is very interesting for many foreigners visiting Japan, and it is also regarded as "important history and culture of Japanese people". In addition, the gods and Buddha and the Japanese have an inseparable history, and the bills and amulets received at the shrine are also stamped with the word "Shintai". This is the idea that the stamp is stamped so that the god can be placed in a bill or amulet as a shintai, that is, an alter ego. In addition, the red stamp received at the temple will also be stamped with the "Sanpo stamp". In this way, there is a huge connection between the Japanese and the seal, and it is said that it has a great influence on the Japanese way of life and identity. Even now, the importance and importance of stamping a seal has not changed, and Japanese people continue to live. We value the goodness of each of the seal, signature, and digital, and we are required to have a form that is suitable for the culture / climate, customs, industry / business format , rather than just one of them.
* Korea and Taiwan have a seal registration system as a remnant of the prewar period.
Many of the famous mark that has been used in the history of Japan
Official seals of the imperial family and officials
The seals of monks and writers
Emperor Privy Seal
Japan's oldest official seal
Emperor Nintoku era official seal
Heian period official seal
Kamakura period stamp
(Monk / literary person)
Earth Emperor Mystery
King of Na gold seal
Bank of Japan Governor's Seal
(Size of official seal) Cabinet directive No. 1
Emperor Privy Seal 3 inch 90 mm square Official seal Large: 35 mm square Small: 30 mm square
Official position stamp
Prime Minister: 30 mm square Ministers of each ministry: 30 mm square Deputy Secretary: 30 mm square Director: 30 mm square Director: 30 mm square Manager: 23 mm square
Public office stamp
Governor: 27 mm square Deputy Governor: 24 mm square Director: 23 mm square Account book: 23 mm square Section chief: 21 mm square Public school principal: 21 mm square
Official seal Prefecture seal: 30 mm square
(History of the mark)
Seal displays the self, also own the rights, obligations, and as one of the means for displaying the ownership, which has been invented in the primitive agricultural society of Mesopotamia in the second half already BC five thousand's, stone, clay, shells -It is made of bone, metal, etc., engraved with pictures and letters, and printed on clay or cloth. The meaning of that purpose included not only the display of self-owned property but also the meaning of amulet. Seal itself also, it had been considered as amulet.
The seal was introduced in Japan in the Nara dynasty, which began with a round trip from the ambassador to Tang, and the seal system was already established during the Tenpei era. , Various privy seals (eight provinces, dormitory seals, country seals) were created and stamped on official documents, and temple and shrine seals are now used as private seals in rural areas. In the Heian period, official seals and private seals were used, and in the middle period, public houses, lords, and military commanders began to use Kao (calligraphy). The general public still stamped thumbprints and nails on documents. During the Kamakura period, monks and literati made seals and ex-libris stamps through trade with the Song dynasty. During the Warring States period, military commanders used Kao, but famous stamps such as Oda, Takeda, Hojo, and Uesugi were still used. In addition, when trading with Portugal and the Netherlands, a red stamp or a red stamp was required, and numerous seals were made. In the Edo period, there are records that the use of stamps was permitted not only by samurai but also by merchants and some farmers. Seals became popular in the Edo period, but the use of red meat is generally prohibited (many of the seals called "Kanazawa Bunko", which are said to have been made in the Kamakura period, are black meat). did. Therefore, the red seal was limited to the official documents of the samurai era and was very authoritative. For example, at that time, the ship that was allowed to trade with foreign countries by the red seal was called the red seal ship. Around this time, the reason why the seal was called a seal was to judge the good and evil of things and the straightness of the song, and since the seal was stamped on the judgment, it came to be called a seal, and the word for the seal was born. Determine nurses (Opinion teacher) is that it was allowed to Tatewaki in the same way as swords teacher, this is believed to be recognized for the mark was deep. Then, on October 1, 1873, the Daijo-kan decree established a seal certification system that stamps the seal in addition to the signature. Even today, seals are used everywhere to confirm the will of the person.
From the cradle to the graveyard
Seal the cradle to the grave
Used at milestones in life
Seals are an important necessity that is absolutely indispensable for our daily lives. We individuals, corporations, and nations use seals to confirm each other's will and responsibilities. When we were born, we first started using it for birth registration, and when we entered school, parents stamped it on report cards, etc., and after graduating from school, as a first step as a member of society, we wrote our resumes and various documents. It will be used, and the number from marriage registration to death registration will be innumerable. Increasing the chances of becoming a member of society and using the seal means that the person's social status is improving.
The seal is a proof of your intention not to change. Having a seal will be considered as a full-fledged adult. In Japan, just like the "Kami Hajime" ritual of wearing a genpuku and holding a Kao in the Kamakura period, having a seal now means becoming an independent member of society. It is also common to give a seal at the time of coming-of-age ceremony, birthday, or employment.
(From the cradle to the graveyard)
Birth notification, marriage notification, divorce notification, death notification, adoption, divorce notification, fair certificate, will, real estate sales contract, lease contract, loan agreement, car transfer contract, transfer of golf membership Contract, content certification mail, power of attorney, receipt, deposit certificate, estate division agreement, joint guarantee contract, surgery, repayment of proxy, administrative procedure, deposit, history, application, account opening, in-house settlement, circulation, Delivery receipt etc.
A seal is a sign of decision making
Pressing the seal is
To show society an unwavering "will"
And the seal is an important necessity to protect yourself
Seals are a necessity in Japanese society, meaning trust and trust. Let's handle it strictly. When something happens, the seal is the definitive proof of the trial. The Code of Civil Procedure stipulates that a seal should be genuinely established if it has a signature or seal. For contracts that are required by law to be "written", a contract must be prepared and stamped.
・ If you are not satisfied, do not stamp! !!
・ Are you sure that you are satisfied with the contents of the consent form, the settlement, the contract, the record, the consent form, and the receipt? !!
・ Is there any problem with the content? Are the dates and addresses correct?
The importance of seal in the law (the difference of evidence potency)
Documents handwritten by yourself and stamped with a seal are legally highly proof documents. As for the effect, "signature stamp" is stronger than "name stamp", "signature" is stronger than "signature stamp", and "signature stamp" is stronger than "signature". If there is a "signature + seal" (signature plus seal) in society, it means that the evidence capacity is the highest.
Signature stamping : The signature alone is valid, but the evidence capacity is the highest because the signature is also stamped.
Signature only: Contract is valid
Signature seal: The contract is valid
Name only: Not recognized as official effect
In addition, there are various seal laws such as civil law, criminal law, commercial law, real estate registration law, and commercial registration law. For example, a person who forges a seal or signature of a public office or a public employee will be punished by imprisonment with work for not less than 3 months but not more than 5 years.
Criminal Code Chapter 17 Criminal Code Forgery of Documents Forgery of Official Documents, Exercise of Forged Official Documents, Forgery of Private Documents, Exercise of Forged Private Documents, Fraudulent Electromagnetic Records
About autographs, seals, and digital
"Sign" seems to be convenient for simple procedures and simple checks, but the convenience of signing is extremely low for contracts and procedures that are important as decisions that show strict legitimacy (both contracts). Is a procedure such as having a notary public show the legitimacy). The schedule must be adjusted to a notary public, the fee is high, and unlike in Europe and the United States, a seal certification system issued by the government is established instead of a notary certification. In addition, the signature is most likely to be forged if you grasp the characteristics, and you cannot write the exact same signature according to your physical and mental condition and age. In addition, when comparing the time to write a signature and the time to press a seal, such as receiving delivery at the front door, circulating at a company, multiple documents, etc., there are many cases where it is easier to press a seal. ..
On the other hand, it is considered that the seal has rationality and superiority from the viewpoint of strict and strict legitimacy. In addition, seal registration system, which was built as a social system, it is also protected in already-established law as a culture and customs. Furthermore, if the person who can use the seal is specified, it is possible to guarantee the legitimacy of a third party . For example, even in a company, it is not realistic for the president to "go to the spot and sign all contracts". It can be said that the seal has advantages in this respect as well. More complicated stamp imprints are usually engraved with a thickness of 0.2 mm (2 or 3 hairs) or more, so considerable technical skill is required to forge them (excluding inexpensive mass-produced stamps ). In the first place, it costs more than expected to completely forge, and the act is punished by the criminal law. Your own seal has unique "physical" materials (wood, horns, fangs, stones, etc.), weight, color, eye pattern, engraving depth / trace, and imprint . As the times progress, face-to-face contracts in the field, in kind, and in reality, and " the meaning of being asked for a seal " are becoming more important than ever.
For digital, there are electronic authentication and electronic signatures. Although it has merits such as high legitimacy and convenience, in the digital field where technological progress is remarkable and constantly changing , security problems such as information leakage and spoofing, personal information protection / corporate information protection problems, digital divide problems, etc. There is also concern about whether the service can be continued forever . Even in Europe and the United States, paper and signature contracts (Notary Public) through notaries still exist as a matter of course. While each has its own merits and demerits, it is required to use not only one of them, but also the goodness of the signature, the goodness of the seal, the goodness of digital, and not only the type of business / business type and corporate culture but also the level of approval .